Convergence of Technologies
Compiled by Kip Crosby

1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000
DATA REPLICATION 1875—Edison mimeograph

ANALOG RECORDING 1877, Cros/Edison •1890s Convergence of telepathy, amplifier, loudspeaker

1884— Nipkow's scanning disc

1880s, et seq.-Hellerith, card-based data storage

1891-Edison and Dickson's Kinetoscope

1895— Becquerel's discovery of radioactivity

1897—Braun's fluorescent cathode ray tube

1902—Photoelectric scanning transmits and receives photographs

1905-First Yellow Pages

PHOTOCOPYING 1937, Carlson•1950sConvergence of mimeograph, behavior of charged surfaces 1966-Commercial fax machine, Xerox Telecopier Worldwide adoption of Internet2 standards

Disintermediation rules

PRODUCTIVITY Telegraph repeater technology; Helmholtz's coil-based amplifying loudspeaker; Bell's work on multichannel (harmonic) telegraphy 1882—Bell and Preece's wireless induction transmission

1889— Strowger invents automatic telephone exchange

1889-1906 — Strowger's relay-based telephone switching

1896—X-ray photography AIR CONDITIONING 1911, Carrier •1910s Convergence of early laboratory refrigerators, ice maker TELEVISION 1920s, Zworykin/Baird/Farnsworth •1950s Convergence of scanning disc receiver, Kinetoscope, cathode ray tube, photoelectricity
COMMUNICATIONS Telegraph (telephone was developed as a high-data rate, full duplex competitor to the telegraph); Bell's work on microphones and loudspeakers

TELEPHONE 1876, Bell •1880s Convergence of telegraph, microphones, loudspeakers

RADIO 1895, Marconi •1910s Convergence of wave theory, wireless induction, wave detection 1906—Dunwoody and Pickard's crystal-and-cat's-whisker radio SATELLITES 1957, U.S.S.R.•1960s Convergence of multistage, missile technology, solid-state electronics 1961—Bell Labs tests communication by light waves

1967—Commercial cordless telephones

1983—First cellular phone network in U.S.

1985—Automotive cellular telephones

1993-One in three Americans does some telecommuting

1999—Email surpasses snail mail

LIFESTYLE 1955—Sony's TR-55, first commercial transistor pocket radio 1972—First arcade videogame, Atari Pong by Alcorn, et al. 1993—Dinosaurs roam the earth in Jurassic Park

1998—$3.1 billion in online retail sales; online auctions turn America into a national garage sale

1993—Widespread protests of genetically engineered food in Europe and U.S.

BASIC RESEARCH 1800s—Bentham's frigidarium

1810—Leslie's laboratory refrigerator

ELECTRIC MOTOR 1831, Faraday •1870s Convergence of electricity, conductivity, magnetism, advances in metallurgy

1867-1877—Maxwell and Hertz's theoretical work on wave propagation

1879—Edison's vacuum incandescent bulb

1867-1877—Maxwell and Hertz's theoretical work on wave propagation

1883—Discovery of flow of electrons from filament to plate (Edison effect) 1890—Branly's coherer: tube filled with iron fillings that detected electrical waves

1895—Becquerel's discovery of radioactivity

1897—Thomson predicts the electron

1899—Rutherford's chemistry of radioactive disintegration

VACUUM TUBE 1904, Fleming •1910s Convergence of vacuum incandescent lamp, discovery of flow of electrons

1908—Audiffren's sealed sulfur-dioxide ice maker

1913—Bohr's quantum theory

1919—Flip-flop circuit, essential to computer logic, invented

1929—Plastic tape for magnetic recording 1931—Lawrence's cyclotron

1935—Chadwick's discovery of the neutron

1935-1940—Binary data theory (Turing, Zuse, et al.)

1935-1936—Bowen's ground radar

Microwave theory in 1930s

1936—Alan Turing's On Computable Numbers describes mathematical theory underlying a general purpose computer

1940—Randall and Boot's cavity magnetron

MICROWAVE TECHNOLOGY 1941 •1940s Convergence of short-wave radio, early ground radar, magnetron

1945—Arthur C. Clarke envisions geosynchronous communication satellites

TRANSISTOR 1948, Bardeen/Brattain/Shockley •1950s Convergence of behavior of semiconducting materials under intense light

DIGITAL RECORDING 1951, Remington Rand•1950s Convergence of plastic tape for magnetic recording, binary data theory

Work done in silicon doping at Shockley and Fairchild since late 1950s

1959—Kilby at Texas Instruments and Noyce at Fairchild separately develop the integrated circuit (microchip)

Virtual research projects link laboratories
1600s—Anecdotal evidence that molds on bandages could accelerate wound healing ANTIBIOTICS 1928, Fleming •1940s Convergence of 17th-century anecdotal evidence 1953—Watson and Crick identify double-helix structure of DNA

Interferon discovered by Isaacs and Lindemann in England and Switzerland

1960—Sabin's live-virus polio vaccine GENETIC ENGINEERING 1973, Boyer and Cohen •1990s Convergence of electron microscopy, micromanipulation, supercomputing 1989—Gene transfer by Rosenberg, et al. 1996—Cloning of sheep by Wilmut in Scotland Personal medical records reside on a patient's home page
AEROSPACE 1929—Graf Zeppelin, the Concorde of its time, flies around the world in 20 days Whittle's Powerjets company began development in mid 1930; prior technology a mystery

1930s-1940s—Multistage ballistic missile technology (von Braun, Ley, Dornberger, et al.)

Whittle's Powerjets company began development in mid-1930; prior technology a mystery

JET ENGINE 1941, Whittle•1950s Convergence of mid-thirties technology 1961—First manned orbital mission Yuri Gagarin in Soviet Vostok

1967—Concorde, built by BAC and Sud-Aviation, flies as prototype; first civil supersonic aircraft

1969—Apollo XI moon landing: astronauts send live photographs

1990—Twenty-five years after its construction, the "obsolete" Lockheed SR-71—fastest air-breathing aircraft ever and probably forever—hauls across the U.S. from coast to coast in slightly over an hour

1997—Surveyorreaches Mars

Boeing 777 designed and built by global works teams

2004—Commercial recreational space travel—for the happy few
COMPUTING SCIENCE DIGITAL COMPUTER 1937, Zuse •1950s Convergence of electromagnetic and mechanic relays, binary computation 1946-1948—Earlier work on stored-program computing (Kilburn and Williams)

1947—Solid-state electronics

1948—Shannon and Weaver's switching theory

SOFTWARE 1951, von Neumann•1960s Convergence of card-based data storage and earlier work on stored-program computing

INTEGRATED CIRCUIT 1959, Kirby, Hoerni, Noyce •1960s Convergence oftransistor, silicon doping, electron microscopy

1965—Taylor at ARPA earliest theory of redundant networking

Late 1960s—Baran and Davies, thick interconnection and packet switching

INTERNET, late 1960s ARPA •1990s Convergence ofSwitching theory, military network requirements, packet switching, mainframe timesharing

1977—Apple II introduced at First Annual West Coast Computer Fare in San Francisco, will become the world's most popular and enduring microcomputer Revolutionizes distributing computing; open source challenges Microsoft; Internet becomes conscious
TRANSPORTATION 1876—Otto-cycle reciprocating gasoline engine AUTOMOBILE 1885, Daimler/Benz •1900s Convergence of coach building, gasoline engine 1890s—Lilienthal and Chanute's gliders 1900—Graf Ferdinand von Zeppelin flies his first rigid airship

AIRPLANE 1903, Wrights •1910s Convergence of Lilienthal and Chanute's gliders and Zeppelin's airship

1919—First scheduled London-Paris passenger flights

Airline ticket purchasing, driving directions, cargo management
WARFARE 1937—Condor Legion's bombing of Guernica proves practical effect of aerial warfare ATOMIC BOMB 1942-1945, Manhattan Project •1950s Convergence of radioactivity and radioactive disintegration, quantum theory, cyclotron, discovery of the neutron; used to defeat Japan 1991—Desert Storm: first war fought primarily from air with guided "smart" weapons

1999—Yugoslav hackers in Belgrade attack one of NATO's computer server