
MTHEORY How the
universe is constructed 
BIOLOGICAL ENGINEERING Genetic engineering, nanotechnology, cybernetics, artificial
intelligence 
NEW
EARTH SCIENCE Interaction between living and
nonliving things 
30,000 BC 


 ASTRONOMY, 9008001 BC Mayan astronomical inscriptions
 ASTRONOMY, 4241 BC Egyptian calender is possibly instituted
 ASTRONOMY, 500491 BC Pythagoreans teach the earth is a spere
 ASTRONOMY, 450411 BC Philolaus suggests earth, sun, moon
revolve around a central fire
 ASTRONOMY, 350 BC Aristotle theorizes earth is the center of
the universe
 ASTRONOMY, 140149 BC Ptolemy writes astronomical text
Almagest
 ASTRONOMY, 1075 Arzachel theorizes planets have elliptical
orbits

 PREGEOMETRY/ARITHMETIC, 30,00025,001 BC Tallies recorded on
animal bone, stone, and ivory
 PREGEOMETRY/ARITHMETIC, 80007001 BC Mesopotamians develop
numeration and writing
 ARITHMETIC, 1800 BC Number System is invented in Sumeria
 PREGEOMETRY/ARITHMETIC, 18001751 BC Multiplication tables
appear in Mesopotamia
 PREGEOMETRY/ARITHMETIC, 540531 Pythagoreans develop
arithemetic and geometry
 Geometry / Arithemetic, 300291 BC Euclid's
Elementsformalizes geometry and math
 ALGEBRA, 250 BC Diophantus' Arithmeticais the first
work of algebra
 PREGEOMETRY/ARITHMETIC,100109 BC Menelaus develops
spherical trigonometry
 TRIGONOMETRY,1533 established as a discipline

Sources HIstory of
Science and Technology: A Narrative Chronology. Facts on
File Asimov's Chronology of Science & Discovery. Harper
& Row Breakthroughs: A Chronology of Great Achievements in
Science and Math by Claire Parkinson The Timeline Book of
Science by George Ochoa and Melinda Corey The Timetables of
Science: A Chronology of the Most Important People and Events in the
History of Science by Alexander Hellemans and Bryan Bunch "The
Theory Formerly Known as Strings" by Michael Duff, Scientific
American, February 1998 "M" by Peter Byrne, SF Weekly,
February 1016, 1999 
 MEDICINE, 1550 BC Cures are written on papyrus
 PHARMACOLOGY, 77 BC Pedanius Dioscorides describes about 600
plants in De Materia Medica and spawns pharmacology
 MEDICINE, 1316 Mondino De'Luzzi reintroduces systematic
teaching of anatomy into medical curriculum

 BOTANY, 320 BC Theophrastus writes a book that describes 550
plant species
 ANATOMY,160 Galen dissects animals
 NEW ANATOMY, 1543 Andreas Vesalius upsets Greek Notions of
anatomy, correcting over 200 errors of Galen

 NATURAL PHILOSOPHY, 334 BC Aristotle founds the Lyceum school
of Philosophy
 ZOOLOGY, 50 Pliny the Elder writesNaturalis Historia
 ALCHEMY, 300 Zosimus attempts to change lead and iron into
gold
 MINERALOGY, 1556 Georgius Agricola's De Re Metallica
is published posthumously

 METEOROLOGY, 350 BC Aristotlepens Meteorologika
 ALGEBRA, 250 BC Diophantus draws problems to be solved
algebraically
 OCEANOGRAPHY, 1210 Wallingford records tidal observations
 MAGNETISM, 1269 Pèlerin de Maricourt discovers magnetic poles
 ALGEBRA, 1535 Niccolo Tartaglia finds a general method for
solving cubic equations

 ASTRONOMY, 9008001 BC Mayan astronomical inscriptions
 ASTRONOMY, 4241 BC Egyptian calender is possibly instituted
 ASTRONOMY, 500491 BC Pythagoreans teach the earth is a spere
 ASTRONOMY, 450411 BC Philolaus suggests earth, sun, moon
revolve around a central fire
 ASTRONOMY, 350 BC Aristotle theorizes earth is the center of
the universe
 ASTRONOMY, 140149 BC Ptolemy writes astronomical text
Almagest
 ASTRONOMY, 1075 Arzachel theorizes planets have elliptical
orbits
 ASTRONOMY, 1281 Qutb alDin al Shirazi establishes an
alternate planetary model to Ptolemy's
 ASTRONOMY, 1543 Nicolaus Copernicus establishes the
heliocentric system

1600 AD 

1750 
 ASTRONOMY, 1609 Johannes Kepler establishes that the planets
orbit around the sun in ellipses
 ASTRONOMY, 1657 Robert Hooke discovers that all bodies fall
at equal rates in a vacuum
 ATOM TTEORY, 1666 Robert Boyle proposes all matter is made of
atoms
 CLASSICAL MECHANICS/PHYSICS, 1687 Issac Newton's
Principia is published; establishes Newton's three laws of motion
and law of gravity
 ATOM THEORY, 1803 John Dalton states his atomic theory of
matter
 ATOM THEORY, 1897 Joseph John Thomson discovers the
electron

 MAGNETISM, 1600 William Gilbert proposes in On
Magnetism that earth is a giant magnet
 ELECTRICITY, 1660 Otto von Guericke discovers static
electricity
 LIGHT THEORY, 1665 Francesco Grimaldi's posthumous theories
of light published
 LIGHT THEORY, 1675 Ole Römer determines the speed of light
 LIGHT THEORY, 1690 Christiaan Huygens publishes his wave
theory of light
 LIGHT THEORY, 1704 Newton theorizes light is particulate
 ELECTRICITY, 1733 CharlesFrancois de Cisternay du Fay links
electricity to magnetism through the discovery of two types of electric
charges
 LIGHT THEORY, 1857 Gustav Kirchoff discovers static electric
and magnetic forces are related through the speed of light
 ELECTROMAGNETISM, 1864 James Clerk Maxwell discovers that
light is a form of electromagnetism
 ASTROPHYSICS, 1884 Samuel Langley's The New Anatomy
ushera in the field of astrophysics<

 LOGARITHMIC MATHEMATICS, 1614 John Napier publishes table of
logarithms
 GEOMETRY/ARITHMETIC, 1637 René Descartes publishes
development of analytical geometry
 STUDY OF ELECTRICITY, 1660 Otto von Guericke fashions a
contraption that includes a globe of sulfur to generate static
electricity
 CALCULUS, 1665 Issac Newton develops first form of calculus
 CALCULUS, 16731676 Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz develops his
calculus
 CALCULUS, 1680s Jakob Beroulli makes controbutions to
differential and integral calculus
 CALCULUS, 1704 Newton publishes his version of calculus
 MECHANICS, 1822 Charles Babbagedevises an idea for mechanical
machine to store data and computations such as logarithms and
trigonometric functions
 TOPOLOGY, 1895 JulesHenri Poincaré publishes the first work
on topology, the math of geometric surfaces

 OPTICS, 1590 Zacharias Janssen invents compound microscope
 BACTERIOLOGY, 1683 Anton van Leeuwenhoek observes microscopic
organisms and spawns bacteriology
 BOOLEAN ALGEBRA, 1847 George Boole applies symbols to logical
operations an publishes The mathematical Analysis of
Logic

 CELL BIOLOGY, 1665 Robert Hooke publishes
Micrographia, giving way to cell biology
 TAXONOMY, 1735 Carolus Linnaeus develops systems for organism
classification
 EMBRYOLOGY, 1768 Kaspar Wolff's De Formatione
Intestinarum establishes principles of organs in embryos
 COMPARATIVE ANATOMY, 1798 Georges Cuvier studies the
anatomies of several animals
 CELL BIOLOGY, 1838 Matthias Schleiden discovers that plants
are made of cells
 BIOCHEMISTRY, 1860 PierreEugèneMarcelin Berthelot
synthesizes organic molecules
 GENETICS, 1865 Gregor Mendel develops crossbreeding
models

 DEGENERATIVE EVOLUTION, 1749 GeorgeLouis de Buffon
proposes idea that species have devolved over time
 GEOLOGY, 1787 Abe Werner starts an analysis of the earth's
crust
 ZOOLOGY, 1794 William Dandridge Peck publishes the first
paper on systematic zoology
 PALONTOLOGY, 1812 george Cuvier inquirey into
fossil remains
 EVOLUTION, 1859 Charles Darwin publishes On the Origin of
Species
 PEDOLOGY, 1899 JeanBaptiste Boussingault shows that plants
obtain nitrates from the soil, spawning pedology, the study of
soil

 HYDROSTATICS, 1583 Simon Stevinus discovers factors
determining the pressure of liquids on surfaces
 OCEANOGRAPHY, 1738 Daniel Bernoulli publishes
Hydrodynamica
 FLUID DYNAMICS, 1744 Jean d'Alembert publishes treatise on
the Equilibrium and notions of Fluids
 POPULATION STATISTICS, 1761 Johann Peter Sussmilch initiates
the study of population statistics
 METEOROLOGY, 1793 John Dalton publishes Meteorological
Observations and Essays

 ASTRONOMY, 1609 Johannes Kepler establishes that the planets
orbit around the sun in ellipses
 ASTRONOMY, 1657 Robert Hooke discovers that all bodies fall
at equal rates in a vacuum
 ATOM TTEORY, 1666 Robert Boyle proposes all matter is made of
atoms
 ATOM THEORY, 1803 John Dalton states his atomic theory of
matter
 ATOM THEORY, 1897 Joseph John Thomson discovers the
electron

1900 AD 

1950 
 QUANTUM THEORY, 1900 Max plank introduces quantum theory
after discovering energy is emitted in the form of quanta
 QUANTUM THEORY, 1911 Ernest Rutherford models the atom
NIels Bohr applies quantum theory to the model of the atom
 QUANTUM MECHANICS, 1926 Max Born, Werner Heisenberg, and Erwin
Schrödinger found quantum mechanics from quantum theory
 QUANTUM MECHANICS,1927 Heisenberg theorizes his uncertainty
principle
 QUANTUM ELECTRODYNAMICS, 1948 Richard Feynman develops the
theory of quantum electrodynamics
 QUANTUM FIELD THEORY, 1954 Modern quantum field theory is
established
 QUANTUM FIELD THEORY, 1962 Paul Dirac theorizes electrons may
be membranes or bubbles
 QUANTUM FIELD THEORY, 1974 Sheldon Lee Glashow and Howard
Georgi introduce the first grand unified theory, linking strong,
weak, and electromagnetic forces of particles

 ELECTROMAGNETISM, 1905 Albert Einsteinexplains
photoelectricity and light as a particle; also defines special
relativity and connection between energy and mass, E=mc^{2}
 RELATIVITY, 1916 Albert Einsteinproposes his general theory
of relativity

 RELATIVITY, 1917 Willem de Sitter states the universe is
expanding using the theory of relativity
 RELATIVITY, 1919 Theodor Kaluzaproposes five dimensions
 MODERN COSMOLOGY, 1927 Georges Lemaître theorizes the
universe was created by a large explosion
 MODERN COSMOLOGY, 1939 J. Robert Oppenheimer details the
existence of black holes
 MODERN COSMOLOGY, 1965 Arno Penzias and Robert Woodrow Wilson
find radiowave evidence of the big bang
 MODERN COSMOLOGY, 1971 Stephen Hawking proposes mini black
holes existed at universe's birth
 MODERN COSMOLOGY, 1976 Tom Kibble proposes cosmic strings
(thin, massive objects light years in length) to be ripples in the
universe that took form after the big bang; supergravity also introduced
to physics
 MODERN COSMOLOGY, 1978 Eugene Cremmer, Bernard Julia, and Joel
Scherk propose supergravity allows the universe to have 11
dimensions with 7 curled up
 MODERN COSMOLOGY, 1984 Michael Green and John Schwartz make
important discoveries related to superstring theory
 MODERN COSMOLOGY, 1995 Edward Witten invents mathmatical
theory of quantum gravity; all string theories united under Mtheory:
strings or particles can appear as membrains in 11
demensions

 APPLIED LOGIC, 1928 John von Neuman develops game theory
 MECHANICS, 1930 Vannevar Bush develops machine capable of
solving differential equations
 MECHANICS, 1946 John Mauchly and John Eckert build ENIAC
 ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING, 1948 William Shockley, Walter Brattain,
and John Bardeen develop the transistor
 COMPUTER SCIENCE, 1956 John Backus and IBM team develop
FORTRAN
 TOPOLOGY, 1998 Michael Atiyah discovers the equation for
typological knot theory is rhe same as quantum gauge
theory

 CHROMATOGRAPHY, 1906 Mikhail Tsvet develops the absorption
chromatography technique of separating plant pigments
 ONCOLOGY, 1913 Johannes Fibiger induces cancerous growth in
rats
 BACTERIOLOGY, 1952 Joshua Lederbergobserves bacteria
conjugate and exchange genetic material
 CHROMATOGRAPHY, 1950s Stanford Moore and Willian Stein
pioneer new methods in chromotography for use in analyzing amino acids
 BIOCHEMISTRY, 1951 Linus Pauling discovers the protein helix
 BIOCHEMISTRY, 1953 Francis Crick and James Watson identify
the double helix of DNA
 BACTERIOLOGY, 1969 Jonathan Beckwith isolates a single gene
 GENOMICS, 1970 Fredrick Sanger and Walter Gilbert start
mapping the structure of DNA
 ONCOLOGY, 1986 Robert A. Weinberg and team discover first
gene to inhibit growth of cancer cells

 CELL BIOLOGY, 1911 Thomas Hunt Morgan discovers chromosomes
are the agents of heredity
 GENETICS, 1980 Martin Cline and team transfer a working gene
from one mouse to another
 GENETICS, 1983 Andrew W. Murray and Jack W. Szostak create
the first artificial chromosome

 ETHOLOGY, 1907 Nikolaas Tinbergen studies herring gulls and
identifies the submissive posture, sparking the study of animal behavior
 ZOOGRAPHY, 1920s Lev Berg broadened his study of fish species
to include other animals


 CLIMATOLOGY, 1920 Milutin Milankovich suggests astronomical
factors play a part in the seasons
 CLIMATOLOGY, 1961 Edqard M. Lorenz accidentally finds the
first mathematical system with chaotic behavior in a computer weather
model
 GEOLOGY, 1980s Scientists prove movement of the earth's
plates using satellites and lasers

2000 AD 
